X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic “secondary” (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
When materials are exposed to short-wavelength X-rays or to gamma rays, ionization of their component atoms may take place. Ionization consists of the ejection of one or more electrons from the atom, and may occur if the atom is exposed to radiation with
an energy greater than its ionization
potential. X-rays and gamma rays can be energetic enough to expel tightly held electrons from the inner orbitals of the atom. The removal of an electron in this way renders the electronic structure of the atom unstable, and electrons in higher
orbitals “fall” into the lower orbital to fill the hole left behind. In falling, energy is released in the form of a photon, the energy of which is equal to the energy difference of the two orbitals
involved. Thus, the material emits radiation, which has energy characteristic of the atoms present.
The fluorescent radiation can be analysed either by sorting the energies of the photons (energy-dispersive analysis) or by separating the wavelengths of the radiation (wavelength-dispersive analysis). Once sorted, the intensity of each characteristic
radiation is directly related to the amount of each element in the material.
If you would like to find out more about X-Ray Flourescense or other technologies and services provided by American Assay Labs, please contact us and we’ll be glad to assist you with your goals.